You are looking at a beautiful garden in front of you. You can see all the distinct colors ranging from red, green, blue, purple, and so on. We have special cells in our eyes known as cone cells that allow us to see these unique colors.
We have around six to seven million cones in our eye. Cones are less sensitive to light, but give us the finer detail in a rapidly changing image. So, as you scroll through your Instagram feed and flying through each post or playing a video game, your cones are trying their best to perceive the details for you so that your brain can comprehend the image.
There are three types of cones, which include S-cones, M-cones, and L-cones. Each one is sensitive to a certain wave length, S for short, M for medium, and L for long.
All the receptors contain the protein photopsin, with variations in its conformation causing differences in the optimum wavelengths absorbed.
Along with cones, our eyes also have rod cells that also aid in our vision. Humans have on average 90 million rod cells, which are more sensitive than cone cells and are mostly responsible for night vision. Rod cells play a very minimum role in detecting color and is one of the main reasons why we do not see much color in darkness.
The eye is a very special organ in the human body that gives us the able to see not only give us some vision during the night time (somewhat), but also the ability to see distinct colors in the world. Our eyes give us the sight to see all the beauty in the world!